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One Village One (Superior) Product:An Alternative for Technology-based Rural Development **)

One Village One (Superior) Product:

An Alternative for Technology-based Rural Development **)

Oleh: Komarudin  *)

                                                              Abstract

 The “One Village One Product” (OVOP) Programme was initiated in 1979 by Dr. Morihiko Hiramatsu, the Governor of Oita (Prefecture), Japan. The motto is “revitalizing hometown,  bringing the spirit of the country and the village into the city” and “think globally, act locally”.  Its creation was based on three major themes, “local yet global”, “self-reliance and  creativity”, and “human resources development”.  It has led to the development and  production of a large number of technology-based products, as well as  local  events  and cultures. During the 30-year period,  the  OVOP  has  crossed  many  countries’  borders  and spread throughout the world in almost 46 countries. The Oita Prefecture, in cooperation with West  Sumatera and East Java Provinces has implemented OVOP movement through “One Desa One Product” (ODOP) or “Back to Village” model. By comparing the implementation of OVOP Movement in some countries, especially Indonesia, China, Taiwan, and Japan, people engaging in the movement will further cooperate to prosper their  areas as OVOP’s “big” families and contribute to developing technology-based rural industrialization in  achieving sustainable development and materializing the world peace in the 21st century.

Keywords: one village one product, rural-industrialization

 

 

I.  INTRODUCTION

 

“One Village, One Product” Movement begun in 1979 which proposed by Prof. Morihiko Hiramatsu, te Governor of Oita Prefecture, aiming at the creation of a hometown in which citizens can take deep pride. The Oita Prefecture’s motto is “one village one product” movement. It  has brought the villagespirit into the city (think globally, act locally), and has now changed into “bringing the state spirit into the city”. This is a very  realistic motto in improving people’s income percapita and self-confidence, as well as in revitalizing their villages.

In recent years, this movement has drawn attention from all over the world, in Asia, Africa, European countries, USA, and Latin America. The OVOP keyword is a nationally-recognized brand. It is spreading around the world, a transition from  a growth national product (GNP) to a growth national satisfaction (GNS)-oriented society, aiming at the latter by implementing  the exogenous and endogenous development, as well as the three principles of the OVOP (local yet global, self-reliance and creativity, and human resources development).  

The OVOP synergizes the exogenous as well the endogenous developments. The exogenous development relates to modernization such as in mining and manufacturing as well as steel,  automotive and shipping  industries  using large amount of capital. The endogenous development, meanwhile, relates to the efficient use of resources and capital, conservation of environment, development of semi-secondary industry, revitalization of villages’  primary raw-material products development into secondary and manufacturing industry as well as development of primary and secondary industry.

--------------    

*)    Paper presented at the “6th Asian Political and International Studies Association Congress 2012: Policy and Politics in Changing Asia”, hosted by Centre for Governance and Citizenship, HKIE, and Southeast Asia Research entre, CUHK, 30 November – 1 December 2012, Hong Kong, China.

**)   Research Professor for Public Policy, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, the

        Government of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta.

 

It also synergizes economic, social, spiritual and cultural changes, joint promotion in the fields of agriculture, technology, and industry while attracting the interests of  big industry’s owners. It emphasizes on the improvement of quality and usefulness as well as harmony of life, reduction of environmental degradation and inter-regional disparity, transfer of technology from advanced industries to local ones, particular attention to the erderly, the disabled and those with gender orientation. It also pushes local and unique products with global orientation, cultural and environmental conservation,  creativity,  local innovation with focus on local yet global orientation, self-reliance, ingenuinity and human resources development.

The OVOP Movement: Revitalizing Hometown – Bringing the Spirit of the Village into the Citydevelops through the strategy of motivation, efficiency, community-based participation, sustainability, potentiality and advocacy. It thinks globally, commits regionally and acts locally. It also applies “high-technology” into “high-touch” and “local-technologies”, utilizes comparative and competitive advantages, applies humanware, technoware, orgaware and infoware technologies; develops agropolitan and technopolitan zones as well as scientific and technology-based small and medium  entreprises zones, technopolis, technopark, scientific and technology-based industrial zone, economic and community-based as well as scientific and technology-based developments.

The “Back to Village” motto in East Java Province promotes “one village one superior product”, in-village technology, village market and revival of village entrepreneurs beginning from identification of region’s potential to marketing of their superior products outside of their region. The OVOP has been considered as one of the solutions in rural development, transfer of knowledge and skill, revitalization of local resources, religious, social and cultural stabilization, development of youth and children, women, farmers and fishermen as well as village entrepreneurs.    

Discussion about the Oita’s OVOP and its implementation in four Asian countries during the 1979-2009 period is expected to provide illustrations about OVOP as one of technology-based rural industrial models that can be used as reference in settting up regional and rural or village development policy.  The research questions focus on

1)      What has been done by the governments to develop the OVOP?

2)      Is the OVOP operational in rural development?

3)      To what extent does the OVOP develop in five countries (Indonesia, Japan, China, Taiwan, and Thailand)?

 

II.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF OVOP: 1979 – 2012

 

2.1   A Transition from a GNP oriented    society to a GNS oriented society

      In 2009, the population of the Oita prefecture was 1.22 million and its tota land area is 6,338 km2. It is a medium size prefecture in Japan. Around the time when Morihiko became governor, the per capita income of prefectural citizens was US$ 11,200 but in 2003, the year when he resigned, it more than doubled to be US$ 23,800, it was the top in Kyushu Region, Seouth Japan.

      The OVOP which was implemented by Morihiko Governor had two objectives. First, to increase the per capita income of citizens. The first thing is try to raise citizen/s income and to build up their confidence (GNP oriented society). [1]  The ultimate goal of regional revitalization aimed at the realization of a society where all citizens can be proud and feel satisfied with their lifestyles in each of their respective communities.  Second, OVOP was decided to aim at a society where the elderly live with peace of mind, the young can fully express their vitality, and people can produce their own specialties including culture and tourism even in rural areas,  [2]  which aimed at developing human resources who can strive for regional vitalization.

     

2.2  Exogenous Development and Endogenous Development

            There are two different approaches to invigorate regions, exogenous development and endogenous development:     

a.    Exogenous Development is a method to promote, for example, the modernization of extraction industries (gas, oil, mining, etc.) by introducing investments or resources from the outside, especially from foreign countries in developing countries. This type of development covers energy-related industries, oil and gas mining, and large scale plants, such as steel industries, ship builders, and automobile makers.  For example, the successcull of automobile industries in Thailand were supported by four points (securing high-quality labor, sufficient industrial cluster, establishment of infrastructure, especially for transportation, and useful industrial attraction policies.

b.   Endogenous Development: while making full use of their potential resources and capital, and also preserving environment, people can develop their areas by promoting the semi-secondary industries.  [3]  The ultimate goal of this type of development is regional revitalization on improving citizens/ social life economically, culturally, and spiritually, under the slogan of “concurrent advancement of both agriculture and industry.”  In addition, Morihiko also develop primondary industry (primary and secondary industries).

In implementing these two OVOP’s model of regional revitalization, Morihiko revised a regional development pre   fentially driven by economic interest, and decided to adopt a policy to realize a society where the citizens’ lives and the community’s benefits come first, a GNS-oriented society. A GNS-oriented society does not put values on economic or material satisfaction but on the improvement of the quality of life, pursuit of a worthwile life and coexistence with nature.

While protecting people’s living environment from devastation, OVOP aim at a moderate development or a society with harmony between material satisfaction and spiritual satisfaction. This philosophy of sufficiency economy should consider coexistence of nature and humans, co-prosperity of agriculture and industry, correction of the disparity between urban and rural areas, technlogical transfers from advanced industries to locsl industries, and solution for discrimination against different ethnic groups, disabled people and different genders. In Morihiko’s mind, the citizens of Oita create their own specialty that can be their pride, whether agricultural products, tourism, folksongs, cultural assest, whatever they want. Morihiko uses some keywords in implementing and pushing OVOP realistic development model. [4]

 

2.3   Principles of the OVOP Movement

There are three principles of the OVOP Movement. First, “local yet global”. Each local community would strive to create and market one product that could be a source of pride for the people living there. The movement’s aim is not simply to make souvenirs for tourists, but to create local specialty products that can pass muster not only in the Tokyo market but also in the international market. The OVOP Movement is to create and market local products that can gain a global reputation.

For example, shiitake mushrooms take 34% of all the shiitake mushrooms produced in Japan and the price is high. Schocu (distilled liquor) is very popular in Tokyo and Osaka. In Oita, the price 1.200 yen a bottle, but if we want to buy at a Ginza bar in Tokyo, it will cost 8,000 yen. So the OVOP Movement is about using local natural resources to make high value-added products and to revitalize each local community by developing its potential resources to create high value-added products while concerving the environment. The more characteristic features they offer, the more reputations they can gain in the world. We should find something special to the area and develop it into a “locally yet globally” marketable product, by adding some values to it.

The second principle is self reliance and creativity. The driving force of the movement is citizens. It is not central government officials but locals who decide what they choose as their specialty to revitalize their area. People in rural area should synergize traditional techniques with advanced or appropriate technologies to utilize regional potential. In addition, the campaign to facilitate regional development, know-how, making locals awareness and maximizing it with the spirit of self-reliance and creativity. For example, Yufuin Town is visited by 3.9 million tourists each year and farming products from Oyama Town, a tiny town located deep in mountains and has little arable land to grow rice and few pastures to feed cows. Through a direct sales in the town where farmers could bring their products and price them freely, a restaurant to serve delicious locl dishes cooked, and many shops for direct sales, was the successful example of the poorest town becoming the richest in Japan.

Citizens can choose a specialty product of the OVOP Movement by themselves and promote it at their own risk. Local governments help them by providing them with technical guidance and support for sales promotion, which includes product fairs, establishment of a private company to promote OVOP goods, research through antenna shops in urban areas, and awarding people and groups with remarkable achievements in the movement by using donations from the private sector.

The third principle of the OVOP Movement is human resources development. We must cultivate innovative human resources who can challenge new things in agriculture, trading, tourism, and many other fields. In order to develop the quality of human resources, OITA’s government develop Land of Abundance Training School and several schools in the field ofstock farming, agriculture, commerce, entrepreneurial business, tourism, and women training facilities. The phrase  ”Produce Localy, Consume Locally” means that it is reasonable for locally produced products to be consumed in the area. In 2009, thirty years after the OVOP promoted, the total number of OVOP items of 11 cities and 47 municipalities of Oita prefecture was 336. The gross output has increased from about 36 billion yen to 141 billion yen. To avoid the failures of OVOP Movement, creation of specialties is the most important and “perseverance leads to success” is the key word for the successful of human resources development.   

 

2.4   OVOP OYAMA, OITA PREFECTURE

The original OVOP movement was initiated in 1961 by a small mountain town, Oyama, in Oita  prefecture in Japan. Harumi Yahata, the president of the Oyama agricultural cooperative, encouraged the diversification of the town’s agricultural practices, and directed farmers from traditional rice production to plums and chestnuts, and later to high-grade mushrooms and herbs as well as a variety of processed agricultural products.

Due to Oyama’s geographical disadvantage as a mountainous location, each farmer’s rice field was very small, with consistently low incomes for the farmers at that time (Wahlin and Natsuda 2008). In consequence, many young people had left the town to search for employment in the cities. The town was facing a serious population problem. Plum and chestnut were generally viewed as the most appropriate commercial agricultural products due to the fact that they already grew wild around the town. The idea of a NPC (new plum and chestnut) movement came from the farmers’ struggle to escape from poverty. The movement was mainly supported by young farmers, as opposed to elderly conservative farmers and the state’s agricultural policy, which encouraged rice production (Fujita 2006, p.19). The NPC movement revitalised the town: its population, which had dropped from 7,000 to less than 4,000 before the movement, stabilised thereafter.

Importantly, the people of Oyama town believed that ‘resources are limited, but wisdom is unlimited’. This encouraged the practice of using ‘local wisdom’ as a key to the successful development of higher value added activities – a critical element for success. Farmers realised that the distribution of profit from raw agricultural products was unbalanced: For instance, if the price of an agricultural product to the customer in 260 yen (retail price), an Oyama farmer typically would receive 100 yen. 4 Therefore, farmers developed a variety of processed agricultural products, including plum wines and umeboshi (plum pickles), and later engaged in an organic restaurant business that used locally available resources.5 Consequently, Oyama’s agricultural cooperative (with 848 household members) generated 5.49 billion yen6 of sales output in 2008, becoming one of the most successful rural enterprises in Japan.

Inspired by Oyama’s success, the governor of Oita prefecture, Morihiko Hiramatsu, subsequently introduced the OVOP movement into the whole prefecture in 1979. The OVOP movement involved each village within the prefecture specialising on the production of one distinctive product. It aimed to develop products or services within a community by adding value to locally available resources, and also to enhance local community’s capability and sustainability through engaging the activities by improving local leadership and human resources.

Hiramatsu advocated the importance of locally-led development rather than heavy dependence on the government (Kurokawa 2009). His ideal concept of the role of the local state in the OVOP movement was as a catalyst for local communities, rather than providing subsidies for poor farmers. He acted as a salesman for Oita products, organising Oita foods fairs, promoting particularly Oita’s local shochu (spirits) in luxury restaurants in Tokyo, and once even taking Oita beef to the Tokyo meat market.

The OVOP movement targeted value creation and the establishment of brand names for local products. For instance, kabosu limes are not only distributed as a primary agricultural good, but also processed as juices, salad dressings and other value added products. Through the creation of their Oita brand, ‘Seki Saba’ (mackerels caught in the Saganoseki area) are traded at almost three times the price of mackerels caught in the ocean of the adjacent prefecture, located just 30 km away from Saganoseki. In addition, the movement encouraged human resource development by establishing a number of training schools, designed for particular needs. These included an Agricultural Training School, a Commerce School, and a Tourism School to educate potential entrepreneurial leaders.

 

2.5   The OVOP Movement Spreading through out the World

OVOP started in Oita prefecture, the biggest agriculture area of Japan in early 1980’s. In year 2001, the Royal Thai Government applies the concept of OVOP to One Tambon One Product (OTOP) and implements the OTOP scheme across the country. OVOP has been recognized in year 1990’s in West Sumatera, East Java, and South Sulawesi provinces. The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce has made studies and training in 2003 to 2006 in Thailand, especially to study OTOP.

OVOP concept is become a movement to all countries in the world. Why OVOP is popular to he world, because of OVOP increase the wealthy of the rural villagers by raising the unique identity of the village. Identity of the villages have been promoted to global market through the unique modul of OVOP. The Government of Indonesian had commitment to implement OVOP Movement, implemented by three ministries, Ministry of Industy, Ministry of Cooperative and Small and Medium Enterprises, and Ministry of  Home Affairs. 

Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand had performed locally and internationally for the success of their villages through OVOP in respective countries. Village identity is the icon of OVOP as local wisdom, cultural unique, skilled descendants, rural ecology, village heritage, environment friendly, local-based and cluster approach. OVOP is village products and service-based on the village identity, which is difficult to be copied by other local, domestic, and abroad. OVOP has the capability to attract buters come to the villages, which is directly increase the tourism sector and other local businesses. OVOP Japan is promoted by the OITA prefecture while OTOP Thailand promoted by national government to the provincial, district, and sub-district (tambon).

Provinsi Oita telah berhasil membangun produk-produk unggulan desa. Shochu  (minuman asli) daerah Oyama, Kabupaten Hita, gerakan NPC (New Prem and Chesnut/Kastanya), rekreasi ke Hawaii dari uang penjualan Prem dan Kastanya.Beras Khoshihikari dari Oyama (sedikit tetapi terbaik dan hanya ada di Oyama).  Fasilitas air panas, padang rumput pemeliharaan sapi, daging bakar, dan daya tarik wisata desa Yufuin, mendatangkan 3 juta wisatawan tiap tahun.Penanggulangan budaya malas (yodaki), hindari budaya malas, tumbuhkan kekhasan dan daya saing daerah, manfaatkan SDM dan kelembagaan yang ada, dan tumbuhkan inisiatif masyarakat lokal.

            Terapkan teknologi tinggi dan manfaatkan teknologi lokal, ranch kelautan, industri lokal, agroindustri dan agribisnis, eko-wisata, diklat, pewilayahan komoditas, pendayagunaan potensi daerah (danau, greenpolis, riverpolis, dan pusat riset/balai/loka),  Kurisaki teknopolis, technopark, taman teknologi, taman industri berbasis iptek, pemanfaatan teknologi untuk peningkatan kualitas hidup dan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Kembangkan pasar lokal, kampung. dusun, desa, distrik, kota, daerah, wilayah, nasional, regional, dan internasional.

            Aneka produk unggulan Oita terus dikembangkan. Perkebunan jamur kering shitake (dried shiitake mushrooms), Kabosu limes-juice, Kakaji jelly, produk kelautan Nokawa, stasiun produk perikanan, sardines, temu muka dengan Gubernur (Kiyokawa), teleconference, kerajinan bambu, pottery (Oita-Yaki), pusat bimbingan, pusat pelatihan pertanahan, dan pusat pemberdayaana perempuan. Hiramatsu juga mengembangkan pusat-pusat penanaman dan pengelolaan produk khusus (Oyama plum, Himeshima prawn, Kitsuki greenhouse, Kitsuki Tea Plantation, festival musik, olah raga, seni-budaya, kerajinan, pakaian tradisional Yufuin, dan penataan museum Nakatsue). Produk-produk unggulan Oita dipasarkan bersamaan dengan diplomasi olah raga, pameran internasional, dan pameran produk makanan dan minuman. [5]

Paling sedikit ada enam kata kunci keberhasilan OVOP. Pertama, kesadaran yang tinggi penduduk lokal tentang kemampuan dan potensi serta kualitas sumber daya mereka. Kedua, keyakinan terhadap keunikan produk lokal yang dimiliki. Ketiga, semangat pantang menyerah, kontinuitas, dan kesinambungan yang merupakan kekuatan. Jika gagal, tidak boleh menyerah, terus mencoba menuju keberhasilan. Keempat, produk bernilai tambah tinggi yang berdayasaing, siap dijual ke pasar domestik dan global. Kelima, jaminan pasar dalam dan luar negeri. Keenam, pengembangan kualitas sumber daya manusia.

            Until now, the Oita OVOP International Exchange Promotio Committee  promoted  continuous training and yearly international workshop (Chiang Mai, Thailand;  Xi’an City, China; Ritsumeikan Asia Paific University in Oita; Malacca Malaysia; Liyang City, Jiangshu China; Jakarta Indonesia; and Hanoi Vietnam. The OVOP Movement in each country could be seen in Table 1.

 

Table 1.   “One Village One Product” Movement in Some Countries

 

NO

         COUNTRY

                                                            MOTTO

  1

 

  2

  3

   

 

  4

  5

  6

  7

  8

  9

 

10

11

12

 

 

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

USA

 

Bangladesh

China

 

 

Indonesia

England

Japan

Germany

Cambodia

Korea

 

Laos

Malawi

Malaysia

 

 

Mongolia

Pakistan

France

Philippine

Taiwan

Thailand

Tunisia

Vietnam

“One Village One Product” Day, “One Parish One Product”, “One  

Village One Product” Fair, Los Angeles

“One Village One Product”

“One Factory One Product”,  “One City One Product”, “One Village  

One Treasure” Movement, “One Village Multiple Products”, “Multiple Villages One Product”

“One Desa One Product”,  “Back to Village”

“One Village One Product”  Fair, Cardiff City

“One Village One Product” Movement

“One Village One Product” Fair, Heiligendamm

“One Village One Product”

“Semaul Undong Creativity Development”, “One Village One  Industry”, “One Company One Village”

“One District One Product”

“One Village One Product”

“One Kampong One Product” (1K1P), “One Region One Industry”, “Satu Daerah Satu Industri” (SDSI), “Satu Wilayah Satu Industri” (SAWARI), “One Village One Homestay”

“One Village One Product” Action Plan

“Aik Hunar Aik Nagar”

“One Village One Product” Fair, Languedoc-Roussillon

“One Barrangay One Product”,  “One Town One Product” (OTOP)

“OTOP (All-Top)”, “One Town One Product” (OTOP)

“One Tambon One Product” (OTOP), “Local and Community Products”

“One Village One Product”

“One Village One Occupation”, “Many Villages One Occupation”, “Independence and Creativity, Dependence Mainly on Local Advantages.”

 

 

III.  OVOP MOVEMENT:  INDONESIA, CHINA, TAIWAN, AND THAILAND

 

3.1   OVOP INDONESIA

OVOP Indonesia, like OTOP Thailand, promoted by the national government (Presidential Instruction Number 6/2007 on Management of SMEs, Ministry of Industry: Ministerial Regulation Number 78/2007, Ministry of Cooperative and Smalll and Medium Enterprises: Encourage OVOP ar district level;, and Ministry of Home Affairs: guidance for the provincial and districl level) to develop village superior product such as agriculture, industry, eco-tourism, fishing and marine products. Until now, more than 13 provinces and 50 districts and municipalities implemented OVOP and more than 500 stakeholders (facilitators and mtivators) trained in OTOP Thailand and OVOP Oita.

Some important Ministry of Industry regulation Number 78/2007 are:

a. This regulation focused on …………..

b.

c.

d.

e. 

The Indonesian Village Enterpreneur Association (AWDI), Woman Organization, and NGOs has the duty to encourage and promote OVOP to local communities. That ministries had promoted policies such as grant license, technical assistance, soft loan, rotation fund, promotion of rural business, training for village facilitators and motivators, back to village, One village on product, one desa (village) one product, village technology, village market, and village entrepreneurs. Public private partnership should beimplemented and almost 74,000 villages should make their own identity and superior product.  

The central and regional governments include district level should develop research facilities, local identity development, rural master plan, entrepreneurship, rural infrastructure, land management, legal status, good governance (think globally, commit regionally, and act locally), and provide rewards to the successful OVOP.

Back to Village Program in East Java Province which was promoted by the Governor Basofi Sudirman, mengandung empat elemen. Pertama, Satu Desa Satu Produk Unggulan (produk khas dan unik desa yang menguntungkan masyarakat desa).Kedua, Teknologi Masuk Desa (pengenalan, pemahaman, pengertian, penguasaan, penerapan, pengembangan, pemanfaatan, transformasi, pemasyarakatan, penyebarluasan, pembudayaan, pelatihan teknologi tepat guna untuk meningkatkan keterampilam dan produk masyarakat desa  yang layak teknis, ekonomis, dan sosial).

Ketiga, Pengusaha Masuk Desa (menghimbau dan mengajak pengusaha dari luar desa agar tertarik menanam modal, membuka usaha, dan menjalin kemitraan untuk menciptakan peluang kerja dan menumbuhkan kemandirian usaha masyarakat desa dan daya saing desa).Keempat, Membangun dan Menumbuhkan Pasar Desa (tempat transaksi pemasaaran produk unggulan desa dan mengembangkan perekonomian desa).

            Program ODOP mengaitkan produk berdayasaing dengan budaya lokal, kemandirian dan daya saing daerah, pemberdayaan sumberdaya lokal, kreativitas dan semangat bersaing, memotivasi penduduk, penghargaan, pendidikan dan pelatihan, pertanian internasional, budaya, olah raga, seni-budaya, musik, bazaar, pameran, pasar, dan festival terus dikembangkan. Sejalan dengan itu, dikembangkan pusat informasi teknologi, jejaring informasi, peningkatan kualitas universitas lokal, serta budaya diplomasi, bisnis, dan promosi.

            “ODOP, Is Worth Matching for Future Development?ODOP merupakan solusi pembangunan perdesaan berbasis teknologi dan indutri (pariwisata dan social budaya), mendorong kreativitas dan ide orisinil, dan memperkujat identitas lokal. OVOP memromosikan berbagai produk andalan dan unggulan daerah. Penduduk, masyarakat, dan pemerintah lokal bertukar ide, masyarakat mengerti bagaimana harus mengolah potensi andalan menjadi produk unggulan daerah.

            Kebijakan OVOP meliputi komitmen kuat pemerintah, lisensi, bantuan teknis, bimbingan, pinjaman lunak, promosi bisnis perdesaan, pelatihan fasilitator dan motivator perdesaan, kemitraan, kelembagaan komunitas lokal. OVOP Indonesia harus bisa membangun 74.000 desa di Indonesia, menyediakan lapangan kerja, meningkatkan profesionalitas, menekan urbanisasi, menyinergikan pertanian dan industri perdesaan, mengurangi kemiskinan, mengurangi migrasi desa-kota, membangun migrasi kota-desa, revitalisasi komunitas perdesaan, membangun perekonomian perdesaan, mengembangkan kualitas sumber daya manusia, dan mendorong produk lokal berorientasi global.

            Participatory development aims at self-reliant, sustainable development through active participation in development activities. The aim of participatory development is particularly in line with one of the OVOP principles; self reliance and creativity. The examples of participatory development discussed in the earlier part of this paper, shows the active participation of two different communities Oita, Japan and East Java, Indonesia.

The ways the community people participated in the development were quite similar, but one feature distinguishing between them is the levels of commitment between local governments, private sectors, and non profit organization. In Japan, the commitment of local government to improve green tourism was very serious evidenced by their establishing study group and, promotion council and developing infrastructure such as; roads, a proper transportation system, and issuing supporting regulation. On the other hand, in Indonesia, although the local government has contributed much in terms of infrastructure and regulations, but the commitment to improve agro tourism is still low.

            Furthermore, the low level of human resources in rural areas is the main obstacle in promoting participatory development in Indonesia. Economic and political stability guarantees the ability people to actively participate in development process and thus is an important consideration in the support and promotion of participatory development. In Japan, the economic and political situation is stable; therefore people are stimulated to actively participate on the development process. On the contrary, in Indonesia the economic and political stability is still fluctuating; therefore, the participation of local communities is continues to be passive.

Tthe OVOP movement has brought the positive impact and benefits in regional economic development. The OVOP movement showed us that villages have potential resources and can be a center for ideas and innovations. Furthermore, the OVOP movement promotes a participatory development approach whereby the OVOP movement encourages the villager’s participation to introduce new ideas and innovate based on their own resources. In addition, the commitment of the local government plays an important role in implementing the movement, especially in assisting the villagers in improving their product to be marketable through policies, conducting trainings, marketing and distribution of the product. All these activities represent the participatory development approach in the development process.

 

3.2  OVOP CHINA  

            Tahun 1978, Deng Xiaoping menerapkan strategi ekonomi pasar, reformasi dan kebijakan pintu terbuka. Tahun 1980, Walikota Shanghai, Wang Dao Han, memperkenalkan OVOP dalam bentuk “One Factory One Product”. Tahap awal membuat peralatan mesin berkualitas tinggi, melalui kontrol kualitas yang ketat, didukung sosialisasi yang gencar. Di daerah, digalakkan “One City One Product”, di Kota Wuhan diterapkan “One Village One Treasure Movement”, dan diupayakan mendorong peningkatan produksi perdesaan di Provinsi Jiangsu. OVOP China dikembangkan ke provinsi Shaanxi (Kota Xi’an), provinsi Jiangxi (Kota Nanchang), dan provinsi Gansu (Kota Jiangsu), mengatasi masalah perkebunan, petani, dan perdesaan  (pembangunan berbasis perdesaan).  

In recent years, Changzhou City in Yangtze River Delta has devoted great effors in promoting OVOP Movement, advancing the development of modern agriculture and upgrading the competitiveness of regional economy. After the 2008 OVOP International Seminar in Liyang, OVOP Movement has become more vigorous, the number of OVOP specialized is growing steadily, the economic benefit of OVOP is increasing gradually, the industry level is upgrading continuously, and the participants of OVOP are more widespread.

Prioritas OVOP Changzhou adalah penyebaran ke kota dan desa di Provinsi Jiangsu, peningkatan pendapatan petani, peningkatan industri perdesaan (sertifikasi makanan hijau, makanan organik dan produk-produk mendapatkan brand nasional), serta sinergi pertanian modern perdesaan dengan industri teknologi tinggi).

Technology-based village economy already improve significantly. The main achievements are highlighted as follows:

1.   Emphasizing the exploitation of local resources:  The core of OVOP is to integrate local resources into the market, to produce particular products, and to foster leading industries with market competitiveness, so as to promote the development of regional economy. Now, the coty has formed 7 characteristics agricultural economies, namely flowers and young plants, famous and characteristics fishery, seasonal fresh fruits, edible mushrooms, special tea products, high-quality animal husbandry, and rural tourism. The annual output value of six leading products, including high-quality rice, flowers and plants, special aquatic products, vegetables, live pigs, and tourism.

2.   Emphasizing the extension of agricultural industry: The OVOP Movement in Changzhou focuses on agriculture and extends to the secondary and tertiary industry (to extend from traditional agriculture to modern one, to extend from agricultural resources exploitation to tourism development, and to extend from pure planting and breeding to processing).

3.   Emphasizing the innovation of development model: OVOP is an approach to develop modern agriculture (development form, operating body, and marketing mode: one village one product, one village multiple products, multiple village one product; industrial and commercial enterprises, cooperative organizations, rural collective and union of peasant households, promoted by talents, and driven by specialty market; 251 kinds of certified green food products, 117 kinds of certified organic food products, 206 kinds of famous agricultural products, 7 dominant industries, 60 producing areas and selling markets, branding of Tianmu Lake, Yanghu Lake, Changdang Lake, and top 10 famous tea.

4.   Emphasizing the keading role of science and technology and talents: Insist on taking science and technology as the first production factor of developing OVOP and as the determinant of boosting the competitiveness of agricultural products (agricultural science and technology: R&D, promotion new varieties, technologies, and modes, and technological innovation; the development and training of talents: to solve talent resource bottleneck problem, , training talents of sci-tech innovation and scientific management, encourage business startup, and fortune-making programs, and cooperation with Shanghai Jiao Tong University and utilizing senior trainng class. 

5.   Emphasizing the driving function of government policies: Chinas’s economy develops rapidly, one of the successful experiences is the promotion by local governments with support by regional and central government (the government advocates idea innovation: balanced urban-rural development, optimizing land-use system, and carried out five integrations or urban-rural planning – industrial development, infrastructure, public service and employment, effectively promoted the common development of regional economy, and social undertaking; the government enhances infrastructure construction: construction of new countryside, expanding the public financial support, and extension of rura infrastructure, reconstruction and new construction, and increase productivity; the government persists on regarding projects as driving forces: standardization, insurance, loans, rural funds, and city’s credit guarantee institutions; and the government is dedicated to establish a socialized service system:  improve the allocation of production factors, innovating mechanism, rural cooperation, high efficiency, building standard grain fields, agro-industry, industrial parks, and professional cooperation, machinery, logistics, and product marketing).

Changzhou is ranked Number 9 in the Forbes List of China’s Best Commercial Cities out of 20 cities in terms of comprehensive strength in China (modern machinery manufacturing, science and technology, education and culture, animation industry, and private economy (major force: perfect the development mechanism, innovate the management pattern, expand the development space, and stick to the principal of giving priority to environmental protection, resource utilization, sustainable development, and narrow urban-rural gap, and make OVOP Movement as great city card of Changzhou.    

 

3.3   OTOP TAIWAN

     From 1989 untill now, Small and Medium Enterprise Administration MOEA had started to stimulate distinctive local industry by integrating local resources and their specialties. A total of 120 featured towns have been successfully coached. One Town One Product (OTOP) Movement consists of three area, agricultural products (Emei-Oriental Beauty Tea, Daia-Butter Pulf Pastry, Pengh-Brown Sugar Cake, and Hsinpu-Dried Persimmon), crafts and arts (Sandimen-Glazed Bead, Yingge-China, and Sanyi-Wood Sculpture), and Leisure (Fuli-Lioushihdan Mountain, Golden Daylily Recreation, Taimali-Aboriginal handcraft, Flower & SPA, and Tongsiao-Dairy, Farm & Pottery.

Taiwan government promoted counseling program for local cultural industries and SMEs. The term “local cultural industries” has “local” pertain largely to a village or township, while “cultural industries” refer to some particular local industries of historical, cultural, distinctive or unique qualities. Public Private Partnership through Golden Triangle was divided into different role and function, the Government (role as an invisible hand, budget offer, policy support, and pushing hands), consulting organization, and local SMEs (lifeblood of national economy, to raise employment, increase GNP, improve life quality, and technical advisory.

            OTOP Strategies (to create All TOP) cover localize specialize (e.g. Tourism pull IN: to combine local history and culture, create special OTOP products, and build friendly tour circumstances; tourism, factory tour, city tour, and countryside tour, primary-secondary and tertiary industries), Products push Out (to create Taiwan OTOP brand value through events, improve products and packing, hold and attend national and international exhibitions and fairs, promote OTOP products in various places-OTOP shops and online shops, and encourage cooperation beteen designers and OTOP enterprises through OTOP Design Awards, branding, place-building, and internationalize OTOP products.

Three Year OTOP Programs with target about 15 projects per year consists of Coordinating (to cohere local SMEs common goal, infuse cooperative concept, develop main special products, and arrange basic management training), Cooperating (to improve products and packing, create community overall image, hold local/national promotion fairs and events, and arrange advance training), and Sustainable Learning (to assist community work on their own, improve products and packing continually, promote community overall image, and hold national promotion fairs and events). Langkah-langkah pengembangan OTOP, dimulai dengan pemantapan kelembagaan industri kecil, kerjasama dan sinergi, penentuan produk utama, diklat dan litbang, pengumpulan, distribusi, pengolahan, pengemasan, pemasaran, promosi, bimbingan dan asistensi, pengembangan dan pemanfaatan iptek, dan keterkaitan kuat industri kecil dan menengah dengan industri besar.

            Salah satu keberhasilan OTOP adalah the indigenous handicraft industry in Shandimen Village, Pintung County yang sejak 2005 telah menghasilkan aneka produk hasil pertanian dan industri perdesaan berkualitas dan berorientasi ekspor. Development consulting in Shandimen Village consider the Origins (the Paiwan tribe 7,000 people, a thriving handicraft trade, and slumping agricultural and industry) and Challenge points (a steady outflow of young population, low value-added handicrafts, and poor economis income). Three steps of development consulting are Step 1 (to instill industry confidence: exhibiting and marketing its handicrafts in Taipei to bring awareness to handicraft art of Sandimen Village and promotion through a tour handbook that helps to draw in visitors), Step 2 (internal infrastructure development: culminating business management talents to excel enterprising craft achievements and creating product value, improving and beautifying the workshops), and Step 3 (instilling the overall image: launching a production and marketing cooperative for effective industry integration and staging arts and handicraft exhibition activities that would poise to expand global distribution).     

           Untuk menghasilkan produk bernilai tambah tinggi, diselenggarakan pemberian penghargaan terhadap penemu desain teknologi dan industri berbasis budaya lokal. National Award disiapkan untuk keberhasilan design industry (image raise, product development, design added-value, and mass media release) and local cultural industry to improve Taiwan OTOP products, to pass down Taiwan local culture, to build cooperation beteen designer and SMEs, and to infuse creative product subjects and factors. Desain ini menyinergikan peningkatan kualitas produk, mempertahankan budaya lokal, kreativitas dan inovasi, sinergi industri kecil dan menengah dengan industri besar, dan menghasilkan aneka industri kreatif.     

 

3.4   OTOP THAILAND

Thailand has employed policies to induce foreign direct investment inflows, stimulating industrialisation and export expansion though multinational corporations, and achieving a high rate of economic growth. These policies favoured rapid industrialisation and development in urban areas. Income inequalities and inequalities in wealth distribution between urban and rural areas emerged as a critical social problem in the country. In such an economic environment, the Thai government has promoted CBEs for an additional source of income for in rural and farm households since the 5th National Socio-economic Development Plan 1982–1986. Several government agencies had been involved in strengthening these rural economic units, including the Department of Agricultural Extension, the Department of Livestock, the Department of Industrial Promotion, and later the Department of Rural Development.

In 1997, the Asian Crisis affected rural poor farmers as well as the urban economy (Warr 2000). As a result, the dichotomy between rich and poor became one of the most controversial issues in Thailand. In particular, social movements such as the Assembly of the Poor, comprised predominantly of small farmers, forced Thai policy makers to realise the importance of tackling poverty alleviation in rural areas.

As a result, the government of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawaratra (2001-2006) issued a moratorium on farmer’s debt payments for three years and loaned up to 1 million baht to every Thai village for development projects. At the same time, the government established a Village and Rural Revolving Fund, which now serves as a source of capital for the OTOP project (Zerrillo and Thomas 2007). Furthermore, the 9th National Socio-economic Development Plan 2002–2006 was introduced using the Thai King’s philosophy of ‘Sufficiency Economy’, stressing a more balanced, holistic and sustainable path of development, which could alleviate the economic and social impacts of the crisis.

The concept of ‘Sufficiency Economy’, the social movements of the poor, and the existing CBEs  paved the way for a new rural development strategy in Thailand. Oita’s experience of OVOP influenced the Thaksin government to introduce a Thai version of ‘One Village One Product’, namely ‘One Tambon One Product’ for stimulating rural development in the country. CBEs became a foundation for the OTOP scheme in 2001 (changed from One Village One Commodity, OVOC) when the government then adapted the concept of OVOP to CBEs and later to include other small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In the implementation of the OTOP project, Prime Minister Thaksin led a mission to Oita in order to study Oita’s Experiences. Japanese national government organisations such as the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), the Japan Overseas Development Corporation (JODC), and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) also provided assistance, including the promotion of the scheme’s products in the Japanese market and the dispatch of design experts.

Compared to Oita, the Thai government plays a rather different role in the OTOP movement. In Oita prefecture, local government has played a catalytic role; in Thailand it is the national  government that has been playing a central role. In fact, as a strategy of the Thaksin’s party, OTOP was used as a policy which would enhance the influence of the central government vis à vis local governments. In principle, local governments were subordinated to the national government in the implementation of projects. The Thai government established a three-layer OTOP administrative structure, which is based on the national, provincial and district levels.

At the national level, the National OTOP Administrative Committee (NOAC) and the OTOP Office were established under the Prime Minister’s Office in order to conduct the OTOP project. Also, both provincial and district levels of OTOP Administrative:  Prime Minister’s Office, Related Ministries and Agencies OTOP Office National OTOP administrative, Committee, 9 Sub-Committees, Related Provincial/District Offices, Provincial/District OTOP Office, Provincial/District OTOP Administrative, and OTOP Participating Tambon. Committees, headed by the governor or district major, and their sub-committees were established in the local areas of the country. At the provincial and district levels, local OTOP sub-committees play an important role in selecting outstanding products, and integrating the provincial plans and budget for the development and quality development of OTOP in their areas (JICA 2003).

The OTOP policy has been modified and refocused from time to time since its inception in 2001. In 2002, the policy was designed to identify OTOP products in parallel with various government-led marketing activities. Government programmes were mostly geared to post-production activities and OTOP exhibitions in various places in Bangkok (2001 Ministerial Integration, 2002 Search for OTOP Products, 2003 OTOP Product Champion (OPC), 2004 Standard Champion, 2005 Marketing OTOP, 2006 Search for Excellent OTOP and OTOP Village Champion (OPC), 2007 Knowledge-Based OTOP, 2008 Entrepreneur Promotion, 2009 OTOP Tourism Village, and 2010 Sustainability of OTOP). Furthermore, large numbers of events and fairs were set up in major provinces in all regions. In 2006, OTOP changed to “Local and Community Product” and then go back to OTOP.

Since 2003, more concentration has been placed on export linkages under the Department of Export Promotion. During these years, a logo for OTOP products, Ecommerce, 11 and the OTOP Product Champion (OPC) scheme were introduced. In OTOP, the Thai government created a brand marketing strategy, which led participants to manufacture more value added products, and eventually enhanced OTOP’s export capacity. This strategy has been based on the provision of OTOP certificates through the OPC scheme since 2003. Individual entrepreneurs, CBEs or SMEs, who are registered as OTOP manufacturers, are entitled to participate in the OPC contest. In this contest, OTOP registered products are graded from 1-star (the lowest) to 5- star (the highest) certificated products by an independent committee. The assessment criteria emphasise: 1) export potential through strong brand capacity; 2) stability and production sustainability and stability of quality; 3) level of consumer satisfaction; and 4) the background of the product, particularly the use of locally available resources, knowledge and culture (Fujioka 2008, pp.156-158; Kurokawa 2009, pp.983-984).

OTOP products are classified into five types: 1) foods, 2) beverages, 3) textile products, 4) decorative items, handicrafts and souvenirs and 5) herbal products. In 2006, the largest group of products (or 33.4%) was ranked at the quality level of 3-star, while the second largest group (28.8%) was graded with 2-star quality level and the third largest group (26.5%) was classified into 4-star quality level. 5-star quality level accounted for only 5.7%.

 

3.5   COMPARISON OF OVOP MOVEMENT IN FOUR COUNTRIES

          The comparison of the implementation OVOP Movement in five countries is shown in Table 2.

 

Table 2.  Comparison of OVOP Movement in Japan, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, and Thailand

 

OVOP Movement

Oita Prefecture

Japan

EastJavaProvince

Indonesia

Changzhou City

China

Pintung City

Taiwan

Thailand

1. Program

OVOP

ODOP

OVOP

OTOP

OTOP

2. GNS

Excellent

Fair

Excellent

Excellent

Good

3. Exogenous

Excellent

Fair

Good

Good

Good

4. Endogenous

Excellent

Fair

Excellent

Excellent

Good

5. Value-added

High

Low

High

High

Moderate

6. Export Market

Strong

Weak

Strong

Moderate

Moderate

7. Local Market

Strong

Moderate

Strong

Strong

Strong

8. Technology

High-tech

Intermediate

High-tech

High-tech

High-tech

9. Self reliance

High

Moderate

High

High

High

10. Creativity

Very high

Moderate

Very High

Very High

High

11. HRD

Excellent

Moderate

Excellent

Excellent

High

12. Training

      Facilities

Excellent

Poor

Excellent

Excellent

Good

13. R&D

Excellent

Poor

Excellent

Excellent

Good

14. International

      Cooperation

Excellent

Poor

Excellent

Excellent

Good

15. Leadership

      Commitment

Excellent

Moderate

Excellent

Excellent

Good

16. Organization

and Management

 

 

 

 

 

17. Community-Based Enterprise

 

 

 

 

 

18. Woman

      Participation

 

 

 

 

 

19. Public Private

 

 

 

 

 

      Partnership

 

 

 

 

 

20. Sustainable

      Development

 

 

 

 

 

 

From the result of the matrix above and refer to research questions, we have found that:

a.    What has been done by the governments to develop the OVOP? More than 55 countries already implemented OVOP Movement model through full commitment of the government. Some successful countries: Japan, Taiwan, China, Thailand, and Korea).

b.   Is the OVOP operational in rural development?  Yes, OVOP succeed in narrowing urban-rural gap, develop regional economy, utilize rural resources, and encourage rural-industrialization.

c.    To what extent does the OVOP develop in five countries (Indonesia, Japan, China, Taiwan, and Thailand):  At the beginning, OVOP Oita is transferred to Thailand and Taiwan. Then, many countries implemented OVOP model. Through technical-assistance cooperation, experts from Japan and Taiwan came to Indonesia to socialize OVOP Model annually in some provinces, cities, and many villages. 

 

IV.   CONCLUSION

OVOP telah lahir di Oita pada 1979 pada masa Gubernur Morihiko Hiramatsu. Setelah lebih dari 25 tahun, dibentuk LSM “Oita OVOP International Exchange Promotion Committee”, April 2005. Pada 2008 Hiramatsu menjadi duta OVOP di Kementerian Luar Negeri Jepang. Tahun 2009,  OVOP telah berkembang ke 46 negara di dunia dan tahun 2012 mencapai lebih dari 55 negara. Tercatat 1.476 orang dari 46 negara khususnya dari Asia dan Afrika mengikuti pelatihan di Oita.

OVOP diyakini merupakan salah satu solusi pembangunan perdesaan, alih pengetahuan dan keterampilan, revitalisasi sumber daya lokal, ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, pemantapan agama, sosial dan budaya, pengembangan kegiatan anak dan remaja, perempuan, petani dan nelayan, pariwisata, pengusaha desa, dan rural industrialization. Pertukaran pengalaman keberhasilan antardaerah dan antarnegara akan makin mendorong pengembangan OVOP. Praktik-praktik terbaik (best practices) keberhasilan OVOP di Jepang, Taiwan, Thailand, dan China dapat ditiru dan diterapkan di Negara lain sesuai dengan situasi dan kondisi yang ada, sehingga akan terbangun produk-produk unggulan tiap negara yang berdayasaing tinggi dan siap berkompetisi di pasar global.

            Pemerintah Indonesia terus menyebarluaskan program ODOP dengan belar dari keberhasilan Jepang, Taiwan, China, dan Thailand. Komitmen pemerintah dalam pembangunan ODOP di Indonesia sangat besar. Menteri Perindustrian memacu industri perdesaan, Menteri Koperasi dan Usaha Kecil Menengah mendorong ODOP melalui organisasi koperasi, dan Menteri Dalam Negeri mendorong ODOP melalui pembangunan perdesaan berbasis teknologi dan partisipasi perempuan. Rural industrialization akan menghasilkan produk perdesaan berbasis teknologi, pengembangan perekonomian desa,  pengembangan industri kecil berbasis teknologi, mengurangi migrasi desa-kota dan  kesenjangan desa-kota, yang pada gilirannya menjadi penggerak perekonomian perdesaan berkelanjutan dalam mewujudkan kesejahteraan masyarakat.

 

 

REFERENCE

 

1.      Chia-Hsien Chu, “OTOP Taiwan: Counseling Program for Local Cultural Industries and SMEs”, 6th International Workshop on “One Village One Product”, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, November 14-15, 2009.

2.      Datok Shukry bin Haji Mohamad Saleh, “The Implementation, Experience and Achievement of FELDA in SAWARI Programme, Malaysia”, 6th International Workshop on “One Village One Product”, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, November 14-15, 2009.

3.      Ho Xuan Hung, “OVOP Development in Vietnam: Potential and Orientation”, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam, 6th International Workshop on “One Village One Product”, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, November 14-15, 2009.

4.      Ilhamy Elias, “OVOP to the World and OVOP Indonesia Movement”, Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin Indonesia), 6th International Workshop on “One Village One Product”, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, November 14-15, 2009.

5.      Kaoru Natsuda, Kunio Igusa, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan; Aree  Wiboonpongse, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; Aree Cheamuangphan, Sombat Shingkharat, Maejo University, Thailand; and John Thoburn, University of East Anglia, UK, “One Village One Product – Rural Development Strategy in Asia: The Case of OTOP in Thailand”, RCAPS Working Paper No. 11- 3 August 2011

6.      Morihiko Hiramatsu, President of Oita OVOP International Exchange Promotion Committee, Oita, Japan,   “One Village, One Product”, Spreading throughout the World”. Oita OVOP IEPC, Oita, Japan, 2009.

7.      Morihiko Hiramatsu,  “OVOP , The Best Way for Regional Sustainable Development,”   Keynote Speech on the  6th International Workshop on “One Village One Product”, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, November 14-15, 2009.

8.      Oita OVOP International Exchange Promotion Committee, “One Village, One Product” Movement: Spreading throughout the World, 2009.

9.      Wiwit Kuswidiati, Ritsumeiken University, “A Case Study of Participatory Development in the OVOP Movement: Green Tourism in Ajimu Town, Oita, Japan and Agro Tourism in Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. OVOP Magazine, February 2008.

10.  Zhang Yaogang, “Innovating the Idea on OVOP Development – Boosting the Agricultural Economy with Regional Characteristics” Municipality of Changzhou, PR China, makalah Seminar Internasional ke-6 “One Village One Product”, Denpasar, November 14-15, 2009



[1]  GNP (Gross National Product) oriented society: society realized by focusing on economic development or raising citizens’ incomes.

[2]  GNS (Gross National Satisfaction) riented society: society realized by focusing on citizens’ spiritual contentment rather than material satisfaction.

[3]  Semi-secondary industries: to produce processed foods and other goods mainly by processing agricultural products (primary-industry products), in other words, intermediate industries beteen the primary and the secondary industries.

[4]  Keywords used by Morihiko Hiramatsu, One Village One Product” is nationally recognized brands, OVOP is spreading around the world, a transition from a GNP to a GNS-oriented society, aiming at a GNS-oriented society, implement the exogenous development and endogenous development, implement the three principles of the OVOP (local yet global, self-reliance and creativity, and human resources development), think globally and act locally”.

[5] Regional market of OVOP Oita are Oita, Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, dan Yamaguchi. Development of international market with Oita as a center are Osaka (400 km), Seoul (600 km), Tokyo, Pyongyang, dan Shanghai (800 km), Nanjing (1000 km), Vladivostok dan Taipei (1200 km), Beijing dan Sapporo (1400 km), and Khabarovsk (1600 km). International market networking covers Luisiana dan Los Angeles (USA), Wales (England), Languedoc-Roussillon (France),  Seoul (Korea), Beijing, Shanghai, dan Wuhan (China), Kaohsiung (Taiwan), Calabarzon, Cavitte, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, dan Queezon (Philippine),  Hanoi (Vietnam), Chieng Rai (Thailand), Kedah (Malaysia), Padang, Surabaya, Makassar, dan Denpasar (Indonesia), Khabarovsk dan Vladivostock (Rusia), Manitoba (Canada), dan Queensland dan Tasmania (Australia). 

 

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